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The darkness, like living flesh
corrupted, envelops us with its icy embrace. Thoughts that once burned
fire-like in their complexities, now smoulders in the stygian
emptiness. Invisible terrors, once consigned to the back roads of
consciousness, now eagerly seek prey to feed an eternal hunger.
Horrors of the night now reach out across the threshold into the once
But there is one light that pierces the darkness, one shining example
of freedom of information. One weekly, e-mail newsletter that is not
afraid to publish that which everyone else fears to even think. That's
right! Conspiracy Journal is here once again to split the darkness of
ignorance and fill your world with the pure, white light of truth.
week Conspiracy Journal takes a look at such astounding tales as:
- Report: Global Warming's Smoking Gun is on
the Table -
Dark Visitors: Puerto
Rico’s Moca Vampire -
- Perplexing Accounts of Mysterious
AND: How the Moon Rules Your Life
All these exciting stories and MORE
in this week's issue of
~ And Now, On With The Show! ~
FROM CONSPIRACY JOURNAL FILMS
FIND OUT WHAT MYSTERIES AND
THE VATICAN HAS BEEN HIDING FOR CENTURIES!
New on DVD -
SECRETS OF THE VATICAN
WITHIN THE WALLS OF THE HOLY CITY WITH HIDDEN CAMERAS The Vatican has
been shrouded in mystery and intrigue for centuries. Except for the
highest Cardinals and Bishops, the public and even members of the
priesthood are not privy to the inner workings of the Church. It is
rumored that there are in the secret archives centuries-old artifacts
that, if exposed, could embarrass the standard-bearers of the faith.
Searching for truth has always been the Conspiracy Journal's main goal.
With this in mind, we recently "invaded" the walls of the Vatican with
our hidden cameras on a fact finding mission. On our return, we
followed up our investigation by interviewing such astute researchers
as: Jordan Maxwell - Brad Steiger - Patricia Ress - Penny Melis - and Diane Tessman.
THE EXCITING CONTENTS IN THIS DVD VIDEO INCLUDE:
* Does the Vatican conceal
knowledge that the crucifixion was a fraud?
* Is there a secret cabal
of Satanists within the Vatican to further the evil conspiracy of the
New World Order?
* Learn about
the UFO sighting that occurred over the Vatican the morning of the
funeral of Pope John Paul.
exorcism be a futile effort that often results in the death of the
secrets is the Vatican keeping about the perilous future of our world?
* Is the
Vatican link to the Hubble Telescope evidence that they are aware that
Planet X is headed toward Earth?
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Timothy Green Beckley (Mr. UFO) on Out There TV
Watch our good friend Timothy Green Beckley on Out There TV
where he talks about the
mysteries and possibilities of the hollow Earth and other strange and
This is a show not to be missed! You can now see it online at:
IS IT GETTING HOT IN HERE DEPARTMENT -
Report: Global Warming's
Smoking Gun is on the Table
Human-caused global warming is here, visible in the air, water and
melting ice, and is destined to get much worse in the future, an
authoritative global scientific report warns.
"The smoking gun is definitely lying on the table as we speak,'' said
top U.S. climate scientist Jerry Mahlman, who reviewed all 1,600 pages
of the first segment of a giant four-part report. "The evidence ... is
Andrew Weaver, a Canadian climate scientist and study co-author, went
even further: "This isn't a smoking gun; climate is a battalion of
intergalactic smoking missiles.''
The first phase of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is
being released in Paris next week. This segment, written by more than
600 scientists and reviewed by another 600 experts and edited by
bureaucrats from 154 countries, includes "a significantly expanded
discussion of observation on the climate,'' said co-chair Susan
Solomon, a senior scientist for the U.S. National Oceanic and
That report will feature an "explosion of new data'' on observations of
current global warming, Solomon said.
Solomon and others wouldn't go into specifics about what the report
says. They said that the 12-page summary for policymakers will be
edited in secret word-by-word by governments officials for several days
next week and released to the public on Feb. 2. The rest of that first
report from scientists will come out months later.
The full report will be issued in four phases over the year, as was the
case with the last IPCC report, issued in 2001.
Global warming is "happening now, it's very obvious,'' said Mahlman, a
former director of NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab who lives in
Boulder, Colo. "When you look at the temperature of the Earth, it's
pretty much a no-brainer.''
Look for an "iconic statement''—a simple but strong and unequivocal
summary—on how global warming is now occurring, said one of the
authors, Kevin Trenberth, director of climate analysis at the National
Center for Atmospheric Research, also in Boulder.
The February report will have "much stronger evidence now of human
actions on the change in climate that's taken place,'' Rajendra K.
Pachauri told the AP in November. Pachauri, an Indian climatologist, is
the head of the international climate change panel.
An early version of the ever-changing draft report said "observations
of coherent warming in the global atmosphere, in the ocean, and in snow
and ice now provide stronger joint evidence of warming.''
And the early draft adds: "An increasing body of evidence suggests a
discernible human influence on other aspects of climate including sea
ice, heat waves and other extremes, circulation, storm tracks and
The world's global average temperature has risen about 1.2 degrees
Fahrenheit from 1901 to 2005. The two warmest years on record for the
world were 2005 and 1998. Last year was the hottest year on record for
the United States.
The report will draw on already published peer-review science. Some
recent scientific studies show that temperatures are the hottest in
thousands of years, especially during the last 30 years; ice sheets in
Greenland in the past couple years have shown a dramatic melting; and
sea levels are rising and doing so at a faster rate in the past decade.
Also, the second part of the international climate panel's report—to be
released in April—will for the first time feature a blockbuster chapter
on how global warming is already changing health, species, engineering
and food production, said NASA scientist Cynthia Rosenzweig, author of
As confident as scientists are about the global warming effects that
they've already documented, they are as gloomy about the future and
even hotter weather and higher sea level rises. Predictions for the
future of global warming in the report are based on 19 computer models,
about twice as many as in the past, Solomon said.
In 2001, the panel said the world's average temperature would increase
somewhere between 2.5 and 10.4 degrees Fahrenheit and the sea level
would rise between 4 and 35 inches by the year 2100. The 2007 report
will likely have a smaller range of numbers for both predictions,
Pachauri and other scientists said.
The future is bleak, scientists said.
"We have barely started down this path,'' said chapter co-author
Richard Alley of Penn State University.
Source: Live Science
- HE WHO CONTROLS THE WEATHER CONTROLS THE
WORLD DEPARTMENT -
Who's Controlling our Weather?
Are our governments developing
a secret technology to control the weather?
By the end of the last hurricane season, 30 November, several news
sources made the observation that NO major hurricane struck or
threatened the US during 2006. A quick check of weather records shows
that this is a somewhat anomalous event with very few occurrences
historically. Of course anomalies of science and nature demand our
attention in an attempt to discover an explanation for and
understanding of, the unexplained.
In 1997 US Secretary of Defense William Cohen made the following
statement, "Others (terrorists) are engaging even in an eco type of
terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes,
volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves….So, there
are plenty of ingenious minds out there that are at work finding ways
in which they can wreak terror upon other nations…It's real, and that's
the reason why we have to intensify our (counterterrorism) efforts." If
you think about it, that's actually a pretty scary statement coming
from a sitting Secretary of State!
And consider that if our government believed terrorists were engaging
in these pursuits back in 1997, you can sure as well assume our
government, for good or for bad, is currently well along in pursuing
these abilities as well.
Now, there is a gentleman named Richard C. Hoagland who knows something
more about all this. Hoagland is a scientific researcher with some
clout. He was technical science adviser to Walter Cronkite during the
Apollo missions, worked with Carl Sagan developing the message discs
placed aboard Pioneer spacecraft and has had a close working
relationship with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for many years.
Hoagland's own independent research group is called The Enterprise
Hoagland claims among other things, that after scouring hundreds of
hours of satellite radar images from a variety of sources, he has
documented a phenomenon which he believes is evidence that someone or
something is affecting the path and intensity of tropical storms and
hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. As Sci-fi as that sounds, the
evidence is quite compelling.
Radar images of Hurricanes Ophelia, Rita and Wilma from Sept and Oct.,
05 are shown as examples on the Enterprise Mission website.
The Satellite image loops of the storm tracks indicate some anomalous
and erratic behavior in the path and intensity of the hurricanes.
Satellite images of hurricane Ophelia are especially intriguing to say
the least. They show Ophelia well organized as a strong category 1
storm off the southeast coast of the US. Over very warm late season
open water, the US Weather Service predicted a category 4 storm within
24 to 48 hours and the westerly path of the storm track had it headed
for landfall along the mid Atlantic coast.
Instead, in less than 12 hours the storm had changes course and
dissipated completely. The radar image shows something very strange
occurring to the storm. As the storm tracks west towards the US east
coast, the satellite precipitation image reveals two extremely heavy,
nearly parallel bands of precipitation emanating, in waves from the
east, directly toward the eye of the storm. As these heavy bands of
precipitation intensify over hurricane Ophelia, the storm begins to
change course, dissipate and is quickly extinguished. The effect is
quite dramatic and not at all natural looking. The fact is, intensely
heavy bands of cool rainfall falling on the eye of a well organized
hurricane, through which the warm waters of the ocean below rise to
provide energy and circulation to the hurricane, would have the effect
of interfering with that energy flow and for all practical purposes
starving the storm of its' fuel.
These images are from the University of Wisconsin MIMIC (Morphed
Integrated Microwave Imagery at CIMSS)
Hoagland describes the dual heavy rain bands as taking on a "tuning
fork" interference pattern that moves in lock step with the eye of the
It is Hoagland's contention "…based on the physics of these images that
these bizarre 'tuning fork' patterns -- note, geometrically aimed at
the precise centers of these respective storms! -- are actually a
"rainfall side-effect" of an unseen energy technology being applied to
these respective storms ... in an effort to decrease both their wind
velocities, and to simultaneously alter the storms' tracks themselves."
As a Spectrum Engineer I see some merit in this EM "energy technology"
explanation, but I believe Hoagland's "rainfall side effect" may
actually be the main desired effect, given that enough intense cold
rain from above, on the storm, could act as a blanket on the storms
fire and have the effect of the storm rapidly raining itself out. As
I'm no meteorologist, this is mere speculation on my part.
But could this effect possibly be attained using electromagnetic waves?
Consider that research indicates, and it's not unlikely, certain
frequencies of high intensity EM fields could have the ability to
separate molecules or break up molecular compounds. This could be used
for such things as say separating H2O from air allowing the water to
fall. It seems this would be more plausible over open water than over
land as water vapor levels and atmospheric conditions over large bodies
of water would seem more conducive. And I'd like to think that if this
technology does exist, and did work over land, it would be used to
address drought conditions worldwide where and when they occur, and not
just to save Washington D.C. when and if it's threatened.
So, think about what it means if the government does have the secret
ability to control the weather in some way, which I believe they may
and which Secretary Cohen seems to suggests. After what happened with
Katrina last year, could you not see an order coming from high up to
deploy and apply this technology to help prevent any future Katrina
like events from ever happening. Politically, it would be the smart
thing to do. And if for some reason the threat from killer storms like
Katrina diminishes, when all the "experts" have been saying these
threats will only increase, we must all scratch our heads a little and
wonder who or what may be controlling our weather?
Source: The Official Graham Hancock Website/Glenn Kreisberg
THINGS THAT GO BUMP IN THE NIGHT DEPARTMENT -
Dark Visitors: Puerto
Rico’s Moca Vampire
In my post from several weeks ago entitled The Chupacabras: A
Psychological Test Come To Life?, I mentioned the Moca Vampire of
Puerto Rico. Again, in my more recent post Chupacabras Thoughts the
Moca Vampire was mentioned by UFOmystic reader MindEcdysiast in regards
to the eyewitness description of a giant bat.
With that, this post will be the first part of a multi-part post
regarding the Moca Vampire.
Hispanic ufologist/cryptozoologist Scott Corrales, Institute of
Hispanic Ufology (IHU), shares his article about the Moca Vampire here
with the readers of UFOmystic.
Dark Visitors: Puerto Rico’s Moca Vampire
“You’re looking for what?”
Perhaps telling the gas station attendant that I was on a quest to find
of the ancestor of Puerto Rico’s Chupacabras hadn’t been one of my
better ideas. The paranormal predator had caused enough damage in its
short-lived range to cause the locals not to want to hear its name
mentioned in jest. Yet here was someone looking for an even shadier
entity, in fact, the traditional “scariest monster of them all” – the
one that cannot be seen or felt, but whose trail of destruction is all
too real and painful.
Waving vaguely in the direction of State Highway 2, the gas station
attendant muttered something about a field off the side of a back road.
Putting the rented car in gear, I headed down the country road with my
photographer in search of the legendary Moca Vampire.
While Chupacabras was a humorous name bestowed upon the creature by
comedian Silverio Pérez, it still carried an air of menace.
Could the goatsucker suddenly change diet and go for people, becoming
the Chupagente? But the Moca Vampire sounded more like a Halloween
bakery confection employed to delight children, not frighten them. Yet
during its year and a half long reign of terror, the unknown, unseen
entity caused a sensation all over the world, despite being all but
forgotten almost thirty years later.
The Vampire Awakens
Coinciding with the overwhelming number of cattle mutilations occurring
in the United States and in the rest of the world at that time, Puerto
Ricans discovered that their livestock was being slain by a mysterious,
unseen assailant. They would have been even more distressed to learn
that the same situation would replay itself twenty years later,
courtesy of the ubiquitous Chupacabras.
In February 1975, a Puerto Rican newspaper ran one of the very first
headlines concerning the wave of mysterious animal deaths to occur in
the vicinity of the small town of Moca, on the island’s western side.
The entity, dubbed “The Moca Vampire” by the press, kicked off its
killing spree in Barrio Rocha, a sector of the town of Moca, where it
took the lives of a number of animals in a grisly manner never seen
before. Fifteen cows, three goats, two geese and a pig were found dead
with bizarre perforations on their hides, suggesting that a sharp
instrument had been inserted into the hapless bovines. Autopsies showed
that the animals had been thoroughly relieved of blood, as if consumed
by some predator.
On March 7, 1975, a cow belonging to Rey Jiménez was found dead
in Moca’s Barrio Cruz, presenting deep, piercing wounds on its skull
and a number of scratches around the wounds on its body.
Jiménez’s cow was added to the growing list of victims, which
now totaled well over thirty.
As the number of victims grew, the Moca Vampire acquired an identity of
its own, much in the same way that the Chupacabras would twenty years
later. Speculation as to its nature was rife: many believed it was a
supernatural “bird”, like the one seen by María Acevedo, a Moca
resident who noticed that a strange animal had landed on her home’s
zinc rooftop in the middle of the night. According to Acevedo’s
testimony, the bird pecked at the rusty rooftop and at the windows
before taking flight, issuing a terrifying scream. Others more readily
accepted any suggestion that it was a space alien, an occupant of the
UFOs reported on an almost daily basis over Puerto Rico at the time.
Some clung to the belief that a gigantic vampire bat had somehow made
it from the mainland to the Caribbean, slaking its thirst on the local
cattle. Only days later, farmer Cecilio Hernández notified
authorities that the elusive Moca Vampire had slain thirty-four
chickens on his property at some point during the night. The
supernatural entity was by now responsible for ninety animal deaths in
a two week period.
A faint ray of hope—soon to be dissipated by harsh reality—appeared
during this critical moment in the crisis: another farmer, Luis Torres,
became the man of the hour after slaying two enormous snakes (Puerto
Rican boas) measuring an unheard-of length of six feet. Torres had
captured the snakes as they stood ready to attack a 600-pound heifer.
The media hailed this act of heroism as the “solution to the mutilation
riddle”; citizens could finally issue a collective sigh of relief.
However, the Moca Vampire had its own agenda. On March 18, 1975, two
goats belonging to Hector Vega, a resident of Moca’s Barrio Pueblo,
were found drained of blood. Puncture marks on the goats’ necks were
the unmistakable sign that the strange entity causing the deaths was
still at large and hungrier than ever: it returned to Vega’s farm the
following night to finish off ten more goats and wound another seven.
The horrified farmer also discovered that ten additional goats had gone
Source: UFO Mystic
- STEPPED OFF THE FACE OF THE EARTH
Perplexing Accounts of Mysterious Disappearances
People disappear every day.
It's been estimated that as many as 10 million people are reported
missing each year in the U.S. alone; about 95 percent of them return or
are otherwise accounted for. Of the remaining 5 percent, some are
runaways, others are kidnappings, abductions or the victims of some
There is a small percentage of disappearances, however, for which there
is no easy explanation. We related several such incidents in a previous
article, Vanished! Unexplained Disappearances. The fate of these people
- sometimes groups of people - is left for us to wonder about. Did they
unwittingly step into a time portal?... Were they swallowed up by a
rift in our three-dimensional world?... Were they abducted by
extraterrestrials in UFOs? These are pretty far-out suggestions, to be
sure, but the circumstances of the following unexplained disappearances
leave us scratching our heads in bewilderment.
The Vanishing Prisoner - This first account is an excellent case in
point because it defies any rational explanation for one simple reason:
it occurred in full view of witnesses.
The year was 1815 and the location a Prussian prison at Weichselmunde.
The prisoner's name was Diderici, a valet who was serving a sentence
for assuming his employer's identity after he died from a stroke. It
was an ordinary afternoon and Diderici was just one in a line of
prisoners, all chained together, walking in the prison yard for the
day's exercise. As Diderici walked with his prison inmates to the
clanking of their shackles, he slowly began to fade - literally. His
body became more and more transparent until Diderici disappeared
altogether, and his manacles and leg irons fell empty to the ground. He
disappeared into thin air and was never seen again. (From Among the
Missing: An Anecdotal History of Missing Persons from 1800 to the
Present, by Jay Robert Nash)
Stumble into Nothingness - It's difficult to dismiss such incredible
stories when they take place in front of eyewitnesses. Here's another.
This case began as a harmless bet among friends, but ended in tragic
mystery. In 1873, James Worson of Leamington Spa, England, was a simple
shoemaker who also fancied himself somewhat of an athlete. One fine
day, James made a bet with a few of his friends that he could run
non-stop from Leamington Spa to Coventry. Knowing that this was a good
16 miles, his friends readily took the bet. As James began to jog at a
moderate pace toward Coventry, his friends climbed into a horse-drawn
cart to follow him and protect their bet. James did well for the first
few miles. Then his friends saw him trip on something and fall
forward... but never hit the ground. Instead, James completely
vanished. Astonished and doubting their own eyes, his friends looked
for him without success, then raced back to Leamington Spa to inform
the police. An investigation turned up nothing. James Worson had run
into oblivion. (From Into Thin Air, by Paul Begg)
Halfway to the Well - Most disappearances do not have witnesses, yet
there is sometimes circumstantial evidence that is no less puzzling.
This is the case for the vanishing of Charles Ashmore. It was a cold
November winter night in 1878 when 16-year-old Charles went out into
the dark with a bucket to fetch water from the well for his family on
their Quincy, Illinois property. He did not return. After many minutes,
his father and sister became concerned. They feared that Charles
perhaps had slipped in the snow that blanketed the ground and was
injured, or worse, had fallen into the well. They set out to look for
him, but he was just gone. There was no sign of a struggle or fall...
only the clear tracks of Charles' footprints in the fresh snow that led
halfway to the well, then abruptly stopped. Charles Ashmore had
suddenly disappeared into the void. (From Into Thin Air, by Paul Begg)
Gone in His Sleep - Bruce Campbell was right next to his wife when he
disappeared, although she didn't see it happen. She was asleep. And
perhaps so was he. It was April 14, 1959, and Campbell was traveling
with his wife from their hometown in Massachusetts to visit their son
some distance across the country. It was a long but pleasant drive
across the U.S. with plenty of stops along the way. One overnight stop
was in Jacksonville, Illinois... and it turned out to be the last stop
Mr. Campbell was to ever make. He and his wife checked into a motel and
went to bed. In the morning, Mrs. Campbell awoke to find the space next
to her in bed empty. Mr. Campbell had vanished, apparently in his
pajamas. All of his belongings - his money, car and clothing - remained
behind. Bruce Campbell was never seen again and no explanation for his
disappearance ever found.
(From Among the Missing: An Anecdotal History of Missing Persons from
1800 to the Present, by Jay Robert Nash)
They Drove Away... To Where? - Here's another case of a couple in
Illinois, but this time they both vanished - along with their car. It
was May, 1970 when Edward and Stephania Andrews were in the city of
Chicago to attend a trade convention party at the Chicago Sheraton
Hotel. Edward was a bookkeeper and Stephania a credit investigator.
They were both 63 years old, considered average, upstanding citizens
who lived in a fine home in the Chicago suburb of Arlington Heights.
During the party, other attendees noted that Edward complained of mild
illness, which he attributed merely to be hungry (the party only served
drinks and small hor d'oeuvres). They soon left the party and went to
the parking garage to retrieve their car. The parking attendant later
told authorities that Stephania appeared to be crying and that Edward
did not look well. As they drove away with Edward at the wheel, he
scraped the car's fender on the exit door, but kept on going. The
attendant was the last person to ever see the Andrews. They vanished
into the night. Police speculated that Edward, not feeling well, had
driven off a bridge into the Chicago River. But an investigation
uncovered no sign of such an accident; the river was even dragged for
the car without success. The Andrews and their car were just gone.
The Long, Long Drive - A similar disappearance was reported by The New
York Times in April, 1980. Charles Romer and his wife Catherine were
one of those retired couples who spent half of the year in the north
and half in the south, living in their summer home in Scarsdale, New
York, then driving to Florida to enjoy the winter in their Miami
apartment. It was on one such trip back to New York that the Romers met
their mysterious fate. They set off on the long trip on the morning of
April 8 in their black Lincoln Continental. Late that afternoon, they
made their first overnight stop at a motel in Brunswick City, Georgia.
It turned out to be their last. They checked in and dropped off their
luggage in their room. Then they went out, possibly to get some dinner.
A highway patrolman might have seen their car on the road that evening.
If so, it was the last anyone ever saw of the Romers or their
Continental. They never arrived at any restaurant and never made it
back to the motel. It wasn't until three days later that an
investigation showed that their motel beds were never slept in. A
thorough search of the area found absolutely no trace of the Romers or
their car - no clues whatsoever. They simply vanished without a trace.
AND A ROUND A ROUND WE GO DEPARTMENT -
The Universe As Magic
Ever feel like you've been there, done that, and that the life you're
living seems strangely familiar? Maybe a psychic has told you that you
were once a great king or queen, or, at the very least, their eunuch.
Perhaps a neurologist has told you that the déjà vu that
you're experiencing is just a trick of the mind. But while these
explanations may appeal to either the spiritually or scientifically
inclined, physicist Peter Lynds argues that there may be a much grander
account that explains the repetitiveness of life: a cyclic universe. In
this, the first part of two articles, we look at what Lynds considers
to be both vital and overlooked cosmological questions regarding the
origin and mechanics of a cyclic universe.
Of course, referring to past lives and déjà vu is being a
tad flippant in regard to Lynds' new paper on a cyclic universe, "On A
Finite Universe With No Beginning Or End," as these areas, he explains,
are really the philosophical fallout - determinism, free will, and life
after death - of his new theory. In a nutshell, the model of the
universe that Lynds is proposing, similar to others before him, is that
the universe is in fact closed and subject to an infinite cycle of big
bangs and big crunches. However, the difference between Lynds' theory
and those that have gone before it is that in Lynds' model the big bang
is no more the beginning of the universe than the big crunch is its
end. Lynds explains, as suggested by paper's title, that while the
universe is finite, there is no arrow of time; there is no past or
present, and that in neither a big crunch nor big bang is a singularity
Lynds' latest cosmological rumination follows a previous paper he wrote
on time, and it's sure to spark up just as much controversy. In his
earlier paper, Lynds argued, in effect, that time doesn't really exist.
That is to say, there are no discrete measurements of time that can be
observed in nature, and that our concepts of it are dependent upon the
relative motions of mass and energy. His latest effort continues along
these lines, arguing that our linear concept of time - firmly
established with the introduction of the Christian calendar - has,
effectively, blinkered us from the possibility of a cyclic universe. At
this point, Lynds' critics are sure to be thinking that he's up to his
old tricks again, but he introduces some very solid arguments,
employing no less than the second law of thermodynamics to support his
Lynds' paper opens with a paradox raised by the German philosopher
Immanuel Kant, who pondered two competing, yet similarly contradictory
theories of the universe. Kant was faced with either a universe that
stretched back infinitely through time, where there would be an
infinite period of time before any event (a procrastinator's dream),
or, of a universe that did have a beginning, but which has an equally
dissatisfying outcome, as it begs the question of what came before the
"beginning," ad infinitum. Lynds explains that the genius of Kant's
paradox is yet to be properly realized, as through proper investigation
it should tell us something about our most fundamental assumptions
regarding time, cause and cosmology. To this end, Lynds' model attempts
to address the rather curly issue of where the universe came from, and
the problems associated with both a finite and infinite universe
through his model of a cyclic universe.
Casting an eye over previous attempts at explaining the mechanics of a
cyclic universe, Lynds turned to Stephen Hawking. Lynds relates how
Hawking once discussed how the second law of thermodynamics might
affect the future of a contracting universe (towards a big crunch). The
second law of thermodynamics is one of those rock-solid physical laws,
the big gun that a scientist may use to quell the pseudo-scientific
flights of fancy held by the reality challenged. As Lynds explains, the
law states that "heat can never pass spontaneously, or of itself, from
a hot to hotter body. Hot flows to cold." This means two things: that
the one-way direction of energy transference involved in natural
processes is irreversible, and that the entropy of an isolated system
will increase with time.
Initially, Hawking concluded that if the universe did begin to contract
then the thermodynamic "arrow of time," as it is often called
(erroneously, according to Lynds), would also reverse. "Everything
would go into the reverse of the way we experience things today: light
would travel back to the stars, and broken eggs on the floor would
miraculously put themselves back together again," says Lynds. Philip K.
Dick, of Blade Runner fame, once wrote about a similar situation in his
novel Counter-Clock World, where many of the consequences of time
reversal - such as dead relatives and feces taking up, er, previously
held positions in your life (to be honest, I'm not sure which would be
worse) - seem quite unpalatable. Hawking stated that such a reversal
would mean that hot would flow to hotter, and that entropy would need
to decrease because, as Lynds explains, "the universe would have to
return to a symmetrical state of low entropy and high order at a big
crunch." Thankfully, the unfolding of such an unsavory scenario is
unlikely due to a number of impossible situations that would arise, not
least of which being that it would require that entropy decrease and
thus break the second law of thermodynamics. As Lynds points out,
Hawking called this "his greatest mistake."
In his model, Lynds manages to account for, or perhaps dodge, the
irreversible, asymmetric nature of the second law of thermodynamics in
a rather novel way. Lynds reasons that if all other physical laws other
than the second law are reversible, or symmetric, then when the
universe is faced with a situation where entropy may have to decrease
instead of increase; "the order of events would simply reverse so that
events took place in the direction in which entropy was still
increasing," says Lynds. "In relation to the big crunch, this would
mean that at the point where the second law would have been breached,
any future events in this direction (where entropy would be decreasing)
These second law restrictions would also mean that instead of a big
crunch singularity occurring, events would instantly proceed from where
this singularity would have taken place had events not reversed. Lynds
explains that following from this: "The universe would expand from
where the big crunch singularity would have been had events not
reversed (i.e. the big crunch reversed), and with events going in this
direction, entropy would still be increasing, no singularity would be
encountered, and no laws of physics would be contravened. They would
all still hold."
Just how Lynds explains the mechanics behind such a scenario, and
whether we would be spared the horror of being cast headlong into
Philip K. Dick's world, is the topic for next week's column.
Source: Science A Go Go
IT CAN'T ALL BE LUNACY DEPARTMENT -
How the Moon Rules Your Life
At last, scientists claim to have found a link between our satellite
and human behaviour - like how it governs the size of your dinner.
For eons, folklore has blamed the Moon for everything from lunacy to
bad luck. And, for the last few centuries, scientists have scoffed.
Now, according to new research they're not so sure. The Moon may not be
made of cheese, but it seems to influence a lot more down on Earth than
we previously thought.
According to new research, the Moon affects not only the tides of the
oceans but also people, producing a range of symptoms from flare-ups of
gout to bladder problems. It may even lie behind the causes of car
crashes and affect people's hormonal balances.
Having carried out new research and reviewed 50 other studies,
scientists suggest that doctors and the police even need to prepare for
how their work rate will increase at different points in the lunar
cycle. Among the findings examined by the researchers were studies that
showed GP consultations go up during a full moon, according to Leeds
University. Appointments rise by 3.6 per cent, which works out at
around three extra patients for each surgery. The researchers did not
speculate on the nature of the moon-related problems or why they
happened, but said that "it does not seem to be related to anxiety and
Gout and asthma attacks peak during new and full moons, according to
work carried out at the Slovak Institute of Preventive and Clinical
Medicine in Bratislava, where attacks over a 22-year period were
Data from 140,000 births in New York City showed small but systematic
variations in births over a period of 29.53 days - the length of the
lunar cycle - with peak fertility in the last quarter. "The timing of
the fertility peak in the third quarter suggests that the period of
decreasing illumination immediately after the full moon may precipitate
A study in Florida of murders and aggravated assaults showed clusters
of attacks around the full moon. A second study of three police areas
found the incidence of crimes committed on full-moon days was much
higher than on all other days. And a four-year study into car accidents
found that the lowest number happened during the full-moon day, while
the highest number was two days before the full moon. Accidents were
more frequent during the waxing than the waning phase.
Another study of some 800 patients with urinary retention admitted to
hospital over a period of three years found higher retention during the
new moon compared with other phases of the cycle. Interestingly,
patients didn't show any other daily, monthly or seasonal rhythms in
their retention problems.
Even what we eat and drink is affected by the lunar cycle, according to
a study at Georgia State University. Researchers looked at lunar
variations in nutrient intakes and the meal patterns of 694 adults.
They concluded: "A small but significant lunar rhythm of nutrient
intake was observed with an 8 per cent increase in meal size and a 26
per cent decrease in alcohol intake at the time of the full moon
relative to the new moon.''
While scientists have been trying to prove for some time that the Moon
does exert an effect, what has not been established is why. Scientists
have until now examined the theory that the Moon triggers changes
through its gravitational pull. But the latest research points to an
effect on people's hormones. "The lunar cycle has an impact on human
reproduction, in particular fertility, menstruation and birth rate.
Other events associated with human behaviour, such as traffic
accidents, crimes, and suicides, appeared to be influenced by the lunar
cycle,'' said Dr Michael Zimecki of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
"Although the exact mechanism of the Moon's influence on humans and
animals awaits further exploration, knowledge of this kind of biorhythm
may be helpful in police surveillance and medical practice,'' he said.
The researchers also found links between the lunar cycle and the
likelihood of people being admitted to hospital with heart or bladder
problems and with diarrhoea. The menstrual cycle, fertility,
spontaneous abortions and thyroid disease were also affected. Just how
the Moon could have an effect needs further research. Dr Zimecki
suggests that it may be the effect of the Moon's gravity on immune
systems, hormones and steroids.
He said: "At this stage of investigation, the exact mechanism of the
lunar effect on the immune response is hard to explain. The prime
candidates to exert regulatory function on the immune response are
melatonin and steroids, whose levels are affected by the Moon cycle.
"It is suggested that melatonin and endogenous steroids [which are
naturally occurring in humans] may mediate the described cyclic
alterations of physiological processes. Electromagnetic radiation
and/or the gravitational pull of the Moon may trigger the release of
Whatever the root cause of the Moon's influence over us, its hold over
the imagination will endure as long as the shining sphere of rock
remains in the sky.
Only 12 people have walked on the Moon: the first were Neil Armstrong
and Buzz Aldrin in 1969, the last were Eugene Cernan and Harrison
Schmitt in 1972. But last December, Nasa announced plans for a
permanent base on the Moon in preparation for a manned mission to Mars.
Construction of the base is scheduled to take around five years, with
the first voyages beginning by 2020.
Source: The Independent
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