The Air Force, always a spoil sport when it comes to UFOs, tried to rain on Roswell's parade by announcing that the crashed UFO was nothing more then an old spy balloon. The dead aliens? Well, they were nothing more then crash test dummies thrown out of planes to see what would happen to crash test dummies thrown out of planes. Of course the dummy tests were implemented in 1953, while the Roswell crash was supposed to have happened in July of 1947. The Air Force reasoned that the witnesses to the 1947 crash simply got their dates mixed up and actually saw the 1953 tests. Sounds reasonable, after all, time fades our memory, especially with something as mundane as a crashed flying saucer with dead aliens splattered on the windshield.
The aliens that were supposed to have died in that hot New Mexico dessert were originally described as short men dressed in what looked like old-fashioned western garb. That description has changed over the years till now the creatures are described as small, grey colored aliens with large black eyes. Better known as "The Greys." It used to be in the good old days of UFOs, (June 24, 1947 to 1973) that the strange craft were being flown by a wide range of flying saucer pilots. There were little people, big people, blond blue-eyed space brothers, monsters, robots, saints and demons from the sky and many more. It seemed as if we were being visited by every inhabited planet in the galaxy. The Earth must have been the Disney world of the Universe to account for all the different types of space people dropping in to spend money at our fine malls and restaurants.
Today, that has all changed. Instead of a nice diverse mix of UFOnauts, we are stuck with the same boring old big-eyed Greys. What has happened to all the others? Was it something we said? Has the Earth been shut down for economic reasons? Have we been auctioned off to the highest bidders, namely the Greys? Where have all the spacemen gone?
After the Roswell Incident, the fifties saw the emergence of the "contactees." People who claimed that the UFO pilots deliberately sought contact with them, usually through time-share telemarketing schemes. Possibly the most famous of the fifties contactees was George Adamski. Adamski reported in several popular books that he had been approached by beings from planets in our own solar system. These Venusians and Martians were all described as human in appearance, tall, blue-eyed and with long beautiful hair. These "Donna Reeds from Outer Space" were concerned with Earths war like ways, and preached against the use of atomic weapons and littering.
Others soon followed with their stories of contacts with the "Space Brothers." People like New Jersey sign painter, Howard Menger, who wrote the definitive contactee book, "From Outer Space to You." Mengers space people looked and acted the same as Adamski's Brothers from space. They flew around in the same kind of flying saucers, ate the same foods, asked to be fixed up with cousins that had great personalities. Most of these stories only further muddied the waters surrounding the UFO mystery. They also contributed to the impression that ufology was populated by nothing more then nuts and crackpots. A stigma that still surrounds serious UFO research even today.
It's hard to pinpoint when the so-called "Greys" first made their appearance. Several reports from the 1954 UFO wave described little creatures with large black eyes that seemed lost and confused, but despite repeated requests from their traveling companions, still wouldn't ask for directions. Researchers though, have not found any substantial reports of the Greys until the early 1970's.
The Greys seem to be more a western hemisphere phenomenon, as UFO occupant reports from other parts of the world still show a high diversity of unusual entities. Some UFO research groups will no longer except UFO occupant reports unless it involves a Grey, so naturally reports of beings other than Greys have been dwindling. Sort of like an outer space monopoly.
Today, unless they've been living in a cave, anyone seeing a picture of a Grey would identify it as a space alien. The Greys have wormed their way into almost every part of our society. Television commercials portray Greys frolicking at night over beers. Magazine ads' show us Greys coveting the newest line of sports sneakers, tee shirts, bumper stickers, key chains. If these creatures do exist, they could conquer us by demanding royalty payments on all the merchandise sold using their image.
Like most other things in our society, the extraterrestrial has been homogenized down to the basic creature we all know and love today. All differences have been eliminated to produce a simple, cuddly, big eyed alien, fit for mom and dad and all the kids back home. But not me! I'll always remember the time when there were all kinds of different spacemen. I'll tell my children that when I was their age I could pick from a dozen or more of the silly flying saucer folk. We didn't have fancy schmancy Greys, and we had to walk fifteen miles a day through the snow to see the flying saucers and their many different pilots. My kids will of course smile understandingly at me, hoping I'll soon fall back to sleep so they can continue to watch their Grey alien cartoons and sitcoms. I'll go back to my happy dreams of space brothers, weird glowing giants and little hairy dwarfs and wonder, where have all the spacemen gone?
Its status as an economic metropolis and capital city was not the only reason for the prominent role of Ephesus in the ancient world; the largest temple of the cult of Artemis, which developed out of the traditions of the Anatolian mother goddess Kybele, was located in Ephesus. Ephesus also played an important role in the early stages of Christianity, as refugees from the Holy Land fled to avoid persecution and death. Unfortunately, Ephesus today, despite its historical significance, is little more than a tourist attraction, and is often bypassed for more publicized spots like the ancient city of Troy.
As we wound our way toward Ephesus, we passed hills where huge white rocks, as if dropped by a giant hand, were scattered between the sparse growth of trees. We came to a Roman, bridge, built in ancient times, but so well preserved that it is still in use today. The deciduous and pine trees gave way to wild olive trees, Nikati told us that they provide a commercial harvest. As we descended into the valley we saw workers picking cotton, the thick white balls literally bursting from their pods. Trucks loaded with burlap sacks of soft white passed us at terrifying speeds. Then there were fields of corn, growing in neat rows, some had already been harvested and it lay drying on a small road alongside the highway.
Finally, we arrived at the famous ruins of Ephesus. The city was empty of tourists due to a national holiday, so we had the ancient site all to ourselves. The original site was established on the Aegean coast. It is now eight kilometers from the sea, due to alluvial deposits carried over the centuries by the river Menderes. The wealth of the city supported the splendid architecture, and the well preserved ruins include one of the most awesome structures, a huge theater-stadium where St. Paul, Diana Ross and Elton John have been featured attractions. It originally could seat 24,000 people.
The site also includes a gymnasium, many temples, an agora and the small theater (odeum) which was mainly used by the senate. There is a brothel, shops and markets. Their plumbing and heating systems were very sophisticated. They had heated public baths and toilets. Their well constructed roadways and lanes are marble. The most famous street, Kuretes Street, leads from Heracles Gate to the Library of Celsius, which was second only to the one at Alexandria, Egypt. Some well preserved homes, beautifully appointed with wall paintings and intricate mosaic floors, still remain. Ephesus is considered the largest, most well preserved archeological site in the world.
Ephesus has seen the influence of many deities over the millenniums. Matriarchal religion in the form of temples dedicated to Diana-Artemis, Ba'alah, the "great mother," and the Greek goddess Aphrodite, whom the Romans adopted and honored in Ephesus. Feminine religion was a distinctive feature of many of the ancient western Mediterranean civilizations. How surprising it must have been for the likes of St. Paul when he arrived in Ephesus as a refugee. Paul's Jerusalemic ecclesiology and manner of worship were altogether different. Religious phenomena of cults was strange to Paul, Silas, and Barnabas. These Hebrews had doctrinal belief stemming from a patriarchal society which had known great male leaders, and a male God, Yahweh.
Diana, alias Diana the Huntress, was a goddess in Greek and Roman mythology. Theoretically, she was the daughter of Zeus, and the sister of Apollo. This was the cult of Diana-Artemis of Anatolian fertility cult fame. The Cybele cult was also adopted into the religious maelstrom. Cybele was a nature goddess of extensive fame, and was worshiped in antediluvian time. Historians furnish documents which affirm that this "mother goddess cult" was known throughout history. In Ephesus was the massive Diana-Artemis-Cybele complex. Several reputable historians have furnish proof that this Diana-Artemis-Cybele Cult evolved in time to the Cult of the Virgin Mary. By AD 431, a small Latin priesthood had triumphed. The feminine religious complex was loudly proclaimed by 199 Catholic bishops at Ephesus, Mary must be praised as the "Mother of God."
Ancient historians Strabon (1st century BC) and Pausanias (2nd century AD) claimed that Ephesus was initially founded by Amazons, a warrior race of women. Because of the lack of unity between the Western Anatolian cities, the city was colonized by the Ionians in the 10th century BC. According to a myth, Androklos, the son of the king of Athena, immigrated to the coast of western Anatolia with his friends, colonized the land and people and founded the city of Ephesus.
Androklos maintained very good relations with the natives of the land, Carian and Lelegians. Under his instructions, the famous goddess of newcomers, Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess of Kybele were reassembled together in the name of Artemis of Ephesus. When Androklos was killed in a war, he was buried in a large mausoleum in front of the Cavern of The Seven Sleepers.
Ephesus was also home to the temple of Artemis. Considered by ancient and modern historians to have been the largest and most complex temple of ancient times. It was made of marble with a tile covered wooden roof. Early Greek colonists at Ephesus, built the temple and dedicated it to Artemis (called Diana by the Romans). Over the centuries the temple was rebuilt and enlarged from time to time. It was the fourth temple at that site, and is considered to be one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. The temple took 120 years to build and was finished in 430 BC. In 365 BC, the temple was burned down by a madman named Herostratus, and the citizens began building an even grander temple. When Alexander the Great arrived in 334 BC, he was so impressed by the plans of the temple he wanted to finish it if it was dedicated to him. The citizens declined the offer because it was not fitting for one god to dedicate a temple to another god.
Over the centuries, Ephesus has been ruled by some of the great civilizations such as the Athenians and Persians, who were eventually driven out by Alexander The Great. After his death, the city was ruled by Lysimakhos, a general of Alexander, who took control of Ephesus in 290 BC. The city walls built during this time are in good shape and can be still seen today. Later, a long era of continuous fights took place between the rival kings of Ionia over the rule of Ephesus and other west Anatolian cities. During the reign of Attalos III, the king of Pergamon, ruling rights of Anatolia were offered to Rome in 133 BC.
The strong influence of Roman culture and art became evident in Ephesus as early as the 1st century BC, especially, during the years of Antonius. Ephesus started to live a very luxurious and wealthy life. Antonius first came to city after the Phillipoi war. He was welcomed by Ephesus citizens with great admiration because of his deep respect of the Dionysus festivals. After he came back to the city with Cleopatra in 33 BC, Antonius was forced to fight against Octavianus to keep control of the Roman empire. He lost the battle and receded to Alexandria in Egypt. He and Cleopatra shortly thereafter committed suicide.
Ephesus carries a great importance in the early days of Christianity. After the Apostles were thrown out of Jerusalem in 37 AD, they scattered throughout the region. St. Paul came to Ephesus in the year 53 AD. He established a number of first believers of Jesus in Ephesus. After a strong opposition by some locals he was forced to flee to Macedonia. He returned to the area years later, but instead settled in Miletus. After St. Paul's execution by Romans in the year 64 AD, St. John became the head of the church of Ephesus. St. John reportedly took Mary, the mother of Jesus out of Jerusalem and they settled together in Ephesus.
According to the Christian council records of 431 AD, Mary came to Ephesus five or six years after the death of Jesus. A small house was built for her on nearby Mount Nightingale, where she lived until her death at the age of 64. St. John wrote in Bible that the Virgin Mary was entrusted to him by Jesus himself before the crucifixion. One of the most important decisions of Christian history was held in Ephesus in the year 431. The main argument was whether the Virgin Mary was the mother of God Christ or Human Christ. This caused a great division between the participants of the meeting. The division became more apparent after the meeting. Emperor Theodosios ordered another meeting in the Virgin Mary church. This was the first church built to her name. It took more than 3 months to reach to a consensus. During this meeting, it was officially recorded that the Virgin Mary's grave was in Ephesus. It was also recorded in the Council documents that Mary lived in a house next to the Council Church inside Ephesus before moving into the house on Mount Nightingale where she spent the last years of her life.
Research on the age of the foundations of the building shows that the original house was built in the 1st century AD. However, the walls and the roof were renovated during the following centuries. In 1967, Pope Paul VI visited and prayed in the house. Later on, Pope John II visited the house and confirmed again the significance of the house for Christianity. The site is widely accepted as a pilgrimage place for Christians and Muslims from all over the world. A commemoration ceremony is held here every year on the 15th of August. The earth and the church water of this church is thought to have the benefit of protection against evil and bad luck.
The Cave of The Seven Sleepers is another holy site for Christianity. During the first centuries of Christianity an enormous amount of pressure was put on these early followers of Christ. One of the biggest problems between the early Christians and the central authorities was the necessity of offering sacrifices to the cult of Emperors. Christians refused to do this. As a result of this conflict, Christians were expelled from their homes or killed.
According to legend, seven young Christians decided to leave the city of Ephesus instead of offering sacrifices to the local cult. They took shelter in a cave near the city. It took more than 200 years before they woke up from their first sleep in the cave. During this time Christianity became more accepted and they were welcomed with a great enthusiasm. This event became a proof to the "belief of resurrection, as Jesus claimed." The seven followers were buried in the cave after they died. Afterwards the cave became a holy ground to the Christian world.
After the 4th century A.D, the city harbor became unusable because of mud and silt. The population of the city started to decrease. As more people shifted the main settlement area to the Ayasuluk Hill, around the Basilica which was on the grave of St. John, the importance of the city lessened rapidly. New ramparts were built around this new settlement which was much smaller than the previous one. Finally, during the initial years of Ottoman era, the Ephesus lost all of its importance and was abandoned totally.
Great effort is being devoted to excavating this almost 5000-year-old site, and to uncovering the history of the ages through its ruins. The British engineer J. T. Wood directed the first archaeological investigations from 1869 onward, under the auspices of the British Museum. After the foundation of the Turkish Republic, the government transferred everything to state ownership. The Austrian excavations kept on except for the two World Wars, and have continued uninterrupted since 1954.
Since 1954, excavations and restorations have been carried out not only by the Austrian Institute, but also by the archaeologists of the Ephesus Museum. In their intensive work, they have uncovered and restored important structures. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism accelerated this cooperative work in 1979 through its program: Selcuk-Ephesus Excavations, Restorations, and Systematization of its Environs.
In the course of the excavations, which have now lasted over a century, only ten percent of the ancient city has been unearthed. In recent years, a new perspective surrounds the project. The main accent no longer lies so much on the excavation of further buildings and public spaces, but more on the care and preservation of the buildings that have already been discovered. The project has restored important structures and monuments in the past fifteen years.
As we left the ruins, the sun was starting to set over the distant Aegean sea. The city-state of Ephesus which had contributed so much to the western world, now sits in ruins, a shell of its former glory. Long forgotten, the city still casts an aura of magnificence around the surrounding mountains and valleys. The voices of those who walked the marbled avenues can still be heard in the arts and religions that have been passed down to us today. We little realize the importance and significance the forgotten city of Ephesus has had, perhaps it is time we remember and pay homage to the former jewel of the ancient Aegean.
Even though the Net has received the bulk of attention in the 1990's, its roots actually extend back to the 1960's, a time dominated by the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the USA. The first recorded description of what would eventually become the Internet (http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.html#JCRL62) was a series of memos written by J.C.R. Licklider (http://memex.org/licklider.html) of MIT in August 1962. Licklider's concept which he referred to as a "Galactic Network," was envisioned as a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site in the world. The concept was very much like the Internet of today.
With the Cold War (http://www.ctbw.com/king.htm) and possible atomic destruction on their minds, the RAND (http://www.rand.org/) Corporation considered how the US authorities could communicate after a nuclear attack. If one computer of a network was destroyed, communication would be impossible. And if there was a central authority, it would certainly be the first target for an atomic bomb. In 1964 the RAND proposal, written by Paul Baran, stated that the new network would have no central authority. The principles of this network were: All the nodes would be equal in status, each could send and receive messages. That means that if one node was destroyed, the rest of the nodes would still be able to communicate.
The first test network built on these principles was installed in National Research Laboratory in Great Britain in 1968. Shortly afterwards, the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) wanted to install a more advanced network based on the same principles in the United States. By the end of 1969, four host computers were connected together into the initial ARPANET, (http://www.browncs.com/arpanet.html) and the budding Internet was off the ground. The early Internet was used by computer experts, engineers, and scientists. There were no home or office personal computers in those days, and anyone who used it, whether a computer professional or an engineer or scientist, had to learn to use a complex system.
When people think of the Internet today, they think of the World Wide Web. (http://www.ccsi.com/hassan/links/category/Computers/Internet/WWW/)The Web is an Internet-based computer network that allows users on one computer to have access to information stored on another through the world-wide network. The WWW was started at CERN (http://www.cern.ch/) by Tim Berners-Lee in March of 1989. Originally, the WWW was developed for world-wide communication concerning high energy physics.
Today the WWW is growing at an astonishing rate. Currently there are about 320 million Web pages. The major challenge posed by the WWW is one of organizing and making the wealth of information readily accessible. Right now even the best search agents (such as Hotbot (http://www.hotbot.com) index no more than 40 percent of them. The situation is unlikely to get easier on the Internet because the number of Web pages is expected to grow 1,000 percent in the next few years, according to Steve Lawrence of the NEC Research Institute, co-author of a study published in the Journal Science. "Hundreds of pages are being added constantly," said Lawrence. "There is no simple way to index it all. There could be any percentage of pages out there that nobody has actually accessed yet."
The future (http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/eem1sr/Page5.html) of the Internet and the WWW continues to unfold and develop with each passing day. However, It is difficult to predict the future of the Internet as new software and technologies are being developed at a fantastic rate. If you consider how far television has developed over the past fifty years, you can see that the Internet could develop into something unrecognizable by today's standards. The Internet is a fantastic educational (http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/~pgray/fut_int.htm) resource for both students and teachers. Many schools are already connected to the Web and are encouraging children to get used to the Net. The results are promising, and more and more schools are getting connected everywhere in the world. Education will become a world-wide education on-line. Children will learn more and be better prepared for the outside world.
Libraries worldwide will become completely available through the Internet. Books and other forms of information will be easily available for downloading. The Web will also develop into a 3D (http://www.123car.com/cool.htm) on-line world. Thereby users will be allowed to "walk" around the World Wide Web and push through doors to follow links to other parts of the Web. Communication, entertainment, business, and other activities not yet considered will become integral parts of the Internet. And the Internet will become an integral part of our everyday lives.
The future of the Internet has unlimited possibilities. However, as with all new technologies, the growth of the Internet will encounter problems. Obviously, engineers and research scientists will have to find solutions to problems facing new technologies. Finally, the World Wide Web is not going to change in one day. The Internet will evolve progressively into a new form of communication unlike anything we have ever seen in the history of mankind.